Category: Blog


A trader is defined as a person or an entity in the terms of finance. He is the one who buys and sells financial instruments in finance. Financial instrument is defined as a contract between two parties. Items like stocks, bonds, cash, commodities and mutual funds are included in financial instruments. The term ‘trader’ can be defined and expressed in different ways based upon on different fields and strategies all over the world.

  • Merchant: It is defined as the one who buys in wholesale and sells them to end users with a profit. It can be refered to as a retailer in other terms.
  • Owner of Trading post: The trading post is the place in which the goods are manufactured and they are exchanged with the people for other goods.
  • Trader (in terms of finance): It is the one who deals with the buying and selling of financial instruments like stocks, bonds, derivatives and the like.
  • Trader Classified Media: It is a company which deals with classified with the advertisements. It mainly concentrates on automobile, real estate, jobs and the like.
  • Merchant Vessel: It is often considered as a boat or a ship which helps transporting cargo and helps carrying passengers from one place to another even globally. This process is done on hiring basis.
  • Crypto Currency Trader: Bitcoin Trader is the one who buy and sell BTCs with the fiat currency or altcoins. It involves usage of digital market.
  • Swing Trader: It is a type of stock trader. They spend more time monitoring the stocks. Before every action, they closely follow the stock for days and even for months.
  • Day Trader: This type of trader is little bit busy all time. They execute many trading transaction over a single period of time. They work in stocks, currencies, futures and the more. They may be institutional day traders or retail day traders.
  • Buy and Hold traders: They are also refered to as long term traders. They buy stocks and monitor them for a longer time and sell them.
  • Trend Trader: Their main goal is to earn money by setting a trend. They tend to buy high and sell even much higher.
  • Scared Trader: The main motto behind this type of trader is that they start trading easily. If they find that it will end in loss, these traders will try selling it before it results in loss. They always work in stress.
  • Greedy Traders: This type of traders take risk to a greater extent and try to earn money in bulk.

Spend money to earn money

If you were told that you could make money by shopping you would think of it as a joke or that someone was pulling your leg. Shopping is all about spending money and not making money. It is correct but there are ways in which you can make some money and that too while shopping. Shopping is a hobby for some people while for some it is a boring activity. There are some people who feel better after shopping and it works as therapy for them. Whatever one may feel there is no doubt that it is a necessary thing. One has to shop for the daily essentials if nothing else. It is better to turn this activity into something which can be beneficial to you.

One of the best ways one can make money is by becoming a mystery shopper. This is fast catching up as a lucrative and very interesting option for making money. Big stores are already doing this regularly and the smaller ones are also realizing the importance of getting direct feedback like this. One has to find a good company and offer your services as a mystery shopper and you can make money while shopping. Another way you can make some extra money is by picking up other people’s grocery or daily needs while shopping for your own. There are many people who don’t have the time or are unable to get out of the house because of various reasons. They don’t mind paying a little bit of extra money if someone else does the shopping for them.There are some apps which let you register and then you get assignments to shop for others.

There are some very unique ways you can earn while shopping. There are some fitness apps which reward you if complete a certain number of steps. This can be combined when you go shopping and all the walking may be rewarding for you. Coupons and rebates can be a good way to save and sometimes even make money if you use these very carefully. Keep a track of all the cashback sites and credit card cash backs and your shopping spree can end in a profitable move for you.

One more interesting way to earn money by shopping is to buy digital currencies and trade online.Click for more info. Online trading is nothing but buying a stock and selling it at a profit. Similarly, digital currencies can be bought and sold online and there are platforms like Bitcoin Traderwhich give you good options to make some money. Shopping does not always have to mean spending and losing money. With some smartness, we can turn this activity into a profitable one for us.



How does the BTC Profit achieve its success?

People making investments online have been trying to learn to easily recognize scam trading robots and stay well away from them. The background of such people especially information both personal and professional cannot be tracked easily and hence one has no idea who is making such scam software and what is the purpose behind it. One can assure that the process is not entirely good and not loyal actually and the main intention is earning the money illegally and not give them the profits they have looking forward to. In the BTC Profit, all the users, developers and anyone and everyone using the software can access the details of the creators and they can be easily tracked and asked for assistance in case of an emergency.

This gives proof as to the claim of the users that they do not want to hide anything from the users and as per their ideas, all the information is given to one and all easily. The traders taking part in BTC Profit are actually quiteskillful and are very much educated, from all prestigious institutions and they do have a lot of experience only then they can pull such a detailed plan and technology which has now grown into something this huge easily. They have been studying bitcoins right from when it was launched and even are experts in currency trading and so rest assured they are good at what they d and they indeed do it quite well without any indulgence from anyone else.

Those who wish to start the trading process can do so by starting with the registration where a few details need to be recorded and the information is provided to start the account from which they can start with the trading process rather than interrupting while using some other account. Once the registration has completed then a free license to start the trading is provided with which the person using the software can actually start the trading after paying a deposit which is the basic requirement.

A personal account manager will repeatedly be in touch with the users as soon as the account is created and their main purpose is to guide the users regarding the importance of the software and how effectively one can actually use it in the best possible way which we can see here for more details.

Benefits Of Having An Emergency Fund

An emergency fund is important in individual life since when you have enough savings in your bank account, it helps you at times especially when you have an emergency in meeting your demands.  The emergency occasions are unpredictable and it is difficult to handle the situations unless and until if the individual is financially stable.  If you are in an unstable financial situation, during emergency situations, it makes the condition of the individual worse than before since he lacks enough money on hand to handle the situations.

The emergency situation may be purchasing an asset or a house, which is available at the reasonable price, or for any special occasions or events, extra funds needed at the time of your marriage, or even to handle some drastic situations in life like accidents, major surgeries and so on.  It is in the hands of the individual to meet these emergency situations with adequate money by having a good saving account.  When the individual has the savings account or good investments, he never needs to give any explanation to his friends or the relatives when they raise question against you.   Only thing is to handle the emergency situation carefully by the individual.

The following are the few benefits of having an emergency fund;

  • It makes the individual handle the situations very well. The individual when he is financially strong with the emergency fund as well as with the investments and heis able to balance the life in the right way without the option of raising funds as debts.
  • It reduces the stress level of the individual in which the individual feels financially secured when he is able to meet all the demands even at the times of financial crisis or at the emergency situation.
  • If you are able to save an emergency fund, it can be used later for any other purposes like making an investment as term deposits, investing in shares which will be helpful in making more money.
  • It makes the restrictions for the individual to spend a lot of money unnecessarily by framing a proper budget with an option for an emergency fund so that the individual is able to manage the expenses well and also able to concentrate on saving a part of the money as an emergency fund to meet the sudden expenses in life.
  • An emergency fund will help the individual and his family to have a safe life and able to meet the emergency need very well. When you feel safe, you can lead a happy life along with your family members and able to satisfy all their needs and desires very well.  It is important for any individual to meet the demands of the family since it is his first and foremost duty to be performed in his life.


Digital Money Is Easy To Create And Better To Use


The human mind can never sit idle. They have been creating new innovative tools to make the lives and surrounding conditions more comfortable for fellow humans. We have seen, particularly in the last few centuries that many industrial and technical revolutions have changed the entire lifestyle of humans. We cannot even fathom the impact of these activities and inventions on our living environment.

Humans have caused damage to the ecosystem

We are choking the seas and forests with all kind of pollutions. The cities are teeming with vehicles of all sizes that have impacted even the way respire. The food that we eat is laced with preservatives and chemicals. The clothes that we wear and even the houses that live in use so much energy and leave a huge carbon footprint on the climate. These are smaller things and we can still say that these are essential for the survival of such a huge human population. However, we use natural resources to create wealth and so many unnecessary items of luxury that harm the environment a lot more.

Even the currency system that we practice for buying all these goods uses humongous amounts of paper and metal and other chemicals like ink and plastic. Transportation of currencies itself is tedious and expensive process. A great new idea has been introduced in the last decade and that has brought about a paradigm shift in the thought process of people around the world, and you can read about it by following this useful reference.

Digital money can save the environment

This was the introduction of digital currency in place of paper and metal money. Online transactions and credit and debit cards were already being used extensively. However, the use of blockchain and sharing these across the internet was a path-breaking idea. This is radically so different that people still find it difficult to understand. But now creating wealth using online currency trading websites and block-chain based mining are very popular and being accepted by everyone. One of the most popular and trustworthy websites is Bitcoin Loophole.

It has managed to create a huge impact on the psyche of the people. The awareness about environment and ease of use of virtual currency will draw more people to this arena. This will save the environment to a large extent by diverting the resources being used in the printing of paper money, transportation, commuting to use it in various stores to buy essentials. You can use this virtual money online anywhere in the world and buy anything that you need. This will be the ideal situation for the environment and that day is not too far.


A Keynote On Financial Accounting And Costing Methods

As the term indicates, financial accounting deals with giving necessary financial information to external users like the labor unions, creditors, government authorities and even the shareholders or so. Mainly, it focusses on preparing the financial statements which include the profit and loss account, the balance sheet of the business organization that briefs the production results for a specific period of time. Also, the current financial status is also being upgraded at particular dates too. In the whole process, it follows the common principles of accounting and hence is accepted worldwide.

In general, financial accounting involves money handling and a set of financial statements are issued regarding the pre-specified period. Here are the various aspects being considered in financial accounting.

  • This type of accounting is truly historical in nature and it is a must to conduct annual reporting every year.
  • The cost of expense is generally evaluated without classifying them into fixed and variable types.
  • It provides cost information on jobs, department and other processes are calculated roughly. Along with this, the performance of workers and other managers are analyzed on a frequent basis.
  • The essential decisions like pricing of products, special orders are acknowledged to the management at the right time.

Know more about the costing method and its various types

Costing techniques are used to design the different costing needs of individual business organizations. Mainly, there are two types of costing and there exist other variants that are designed for specific purposes or various occasions or conditions.

The job costing

This technique is ideally designed for ascertaining the cost of a job or that of an order or the pack of finished products. In these cases, the cost unit is considered a job that involves the production of a particular quantity as per the received order only. The order here can be big or small depending on the customer’s wish which can be for stocking or for an eventual sale. One of the major variants of job costing can be explained below.

The contrast type of cost.

Such a method is exploited by contractors for construction purposes. For example, structuring up a bridge or so and in this specific case, the unit of cost is taken as a contract. The time given for completing the contract can normally vary from one or two years and some large projects can extend even up to many long financial years.  Do click here for more info.





Methods For Finding Good Investment Strategies

Methods For Finding Good Investment Strategies


It’s a dependable fact that behind each effective speculation supervisor there exists a composed, repetitive and quantifiable venture methodology. Anyways, numerous financial specialists hop starting with one exchange then onto the next, placing lesser exertion into making and estimating their general methodologies.


The accompanying causes from the full report will enable you to make a venture system that is quantifiable, written and supported by personal solid convictions. Above all, it will enable you to evade a dispersed arrangement of personal speculations which, when perceived at in general, has no general topic or goal.


Can the procedure for the investment technique be written down?

Whatever needs an appropriate procedure, it is critical to record your venture methodology. By doing it will enable you to express it. When you write down the methodology, you ought to investigate it to ensure that it coordinates your long haul venture requirements. Writing the strategy helps in referring back to it amid the season of confusion, that will assist you to stay from emotions speculation choices. It provides you with something to audit and alter in case you see defects, or your venture targets vary. In case you are an expert financial specialist, possessing a composed technique will enable customers to comprehend the speculation procedure. It can expand trust, relieve customer request and increment customer maintenance.


Is this strategy feasible for all market conditions?

Great speculation administrators understand where their venture execution originates from and can clarify their procedure’s qualities and shortcomings. As the patterns in the market and monetary cycles vary, numerous incredible speculation procedures will have times of extraordinary execution pursued by times of slacking execution. Possessing a decent comprehension of your methodology’s shortcomings is essential to keeping up your certainty and contributing with conviction, though your procedure is briefly obsolete. It can enable you to discover systems that may supplement your own.


Is there a framework to estimate the adequacy of the procedure?

It is hard to enhance or completely comprehend something that you don’t quantify. Hence you ought to have a standard to gauge the adequacy of the venture procedure. The standard should coordinate your venture objectives, eventually coordinating your speculation methodology.


The basic sorts of venture limits are relative and total standards. Though it may be a tedious procedure, it is vital to take note of the measure of hazard you are accepting with respect to the speculation limits. This can be done by monitoring the instability of the profits of the portfolio and contrasting it with the unpredictability of the profits attained from the benchmark over various time frames.


The Financial aspect of Internet Of Everything

The Financial aspect of Internet Of Everything


We do know and understand the concept called the internet of everything a little better. It encompasses people and processes who are all connected due to the reach of the internet and latest communication techniques. The fact is that our lives have completely changed due to software technology and the internet. Internet specially changed the process of education, communicating, health care and everything else. Financial transactions have migrated to a completely new level of accuracy and efficiency.


Financial transactions are completely online now


In fact, in the last couple of decades itself financial transactions have changed completely and now every process can be completed online without using any paper. Every kind of transaction, whether it is buying products and services, paying bills, paying mortgagees, gift cards, and trading etc. involving money, can be completed using online resources. So it was a just a matter of time before a virtual currency was introduced.


Software for every kind of trading


Now people use these online software solutions to earn huge amounts of money and spend and save in various schemes. You can see people spending almost all their waking hours working on some kind of device connected to the internet. Whether it is a good habit or not is debatable and scientist are still researching the various effects of continuous light and radiation emissions etc. on the brain.


In the meantime, what is really significant is that we make the best use of this technology to our advantage. After all the technology is supposed to help us in the pursuit of wealth and happiness. In fact, online trading has become one of the most lucrative investments options. These provide significantly higher profits consistently. A well-known program like QProfit System is an amazing source of profits using the CFD and currency trading options.


Today anyone, with or without any experience in the stock market, can use such a program and the best part of a CFD program like the one mentioned above is that you do not even need a lot of money to start trading. Once you understand the concept of the program then you can instruct the robot to trade on your behalf. The sophisticated technology used in the financial world makes it easier to register and trade from anywhere in the global arena.


The use of this technology in the business world is a good example of the human mind and the unlimited innovations that it can bring about. Time to use this service in a better way and take it to the next level.

Clinical Experience

World’s First Human Transplant of a Regenerated Airway

In 2008, our InBreath airway bioreactor technology was used to perform the world’s first human transplant of a regenerated airway. The surgery was conducted by Dr. Macchiarini and his team of surgeons in Barcelona, Spain. The patient had suffered a collapse of her airway following a severe tuberculosis infection. To create the regenerated airway, a donor trachea was obtained and stripped of its cells, and then the patient’s own bone marrow cells were used to seed the donor trachea and prepare it for implantation. Following such regeneration, the regenerated airway was then implanted into the patient. This patient recently passed the five-year survival point. In addition to improving her breathing, because the cells used in the transplant were her own cells taken from her own bone marrow, she has not had to take anti-rejection drugs after the surgery. This surgery was published in The Lancet in November 2008.

World’s First Successful Transplantation of a Synthetic Tissue Engineered Trachea

In June 2011, our InBreath bioreactor was used for the world’s first successful transplantation of a synthetic tissue engineered trachea. For the first time in history, a patient was given a new trachea made from a synthetic scaffold seeded with his own cells and grown in our bioreactor. The operation was performed at the Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden by Dr. Paolo Macchiarini and his team of surgeons. The patient had been suffering from late-stage trachea cancer, which before the surgery would have been inoperable. He was given only a few weeks to live and as such the transplant surgery using our product was a last-resort measure to save the patient’s life. The patient required a tracheo-bronchial scaffold transplant, whereby the scaffold mimics the branched shape of the airway. To create the new synthetic trachea, Dr. Alex Seifalian and other scientists at University College London developed a plastic scaffold shaped like the patient’s natural airway and Dr. Macchiarini seeded it with the patient’s own bone marrow cells. This seeding process prepared the synthetic trachea for implantation and thereafter the regenerated synthetic trachea was implanted into the patient. Because the cells used to regenerate the trachea were the patient’s own, there has been no rejection of the transplant, and, like the first patient described above, this patient is not taking anti-rejection drugs. This patient recently passed the two-year survival point. This surgery was published in The Lancet on November 24, 2011.

World’s Second Successful Transplantation of a Synthetic Tissue Engineered Trachea

In November 2011, the InBreath bioreactor was again used by Dr. Macchiarini to seed the cells on a synthetic scaffold to treat a patient who was suffering from late-stage trachea cancer and required a tracheo-bronchial transplant. The operation was performed at the Karolinska University Hospital by Dr. Macchiarini and his team of surgeons. The procedure was similar to the world’s first successful transplantation of a synthetic tissue engineered trachea performed in June 2011, with the exception that the plastic scaffolding material was changed to a fiber construction rather than a porous solid construction. The fibrous scaffold seeded in the bioreactor for this November 2011 procedure was manufactured in a different laboratory than the one made for the June 2011 patient by another company. The patient recovered well from the transplant surgery and was discharged home from the hospital. Approximately four months after the surgery, the patient passed away from pneumonia secondary to a tracheal tumor. There is no indication that our bioreactor or the third-party scaffold played any role in his death. This patient, like the June 2011 patient, had undergone extensive radiation and chemotherapy treatment prior to the transplant, and his tumor was not responsive to these forms of treatment.

3rd Generation Synthetic Engineered Tracheas resulted in a number of Successful Transplantations

In November 2013, HART developed a third generation synthetic trachea. We believe that the new scaffolds are superior in quality compared to those used in surgeries prior to 2013. The scaffolds have several novel features including the sandwiching of stiff rings between layers of porous fabric to simulate the natural rigidity and flexibility of the natural trachea.

The Need for Synthetic Tracheas

HART is a clinical stage regenerative medicine company developing organs for transplant.

The first product, the InBreathTM Airway Transplant System, is intended to be used to restore the structure and/or function of a severely damaged airway. The InBreath System is comprised of a porous plastic scaffold made in the size and shape of the natural trachea, bronchus or tracheobronchial tree and a rotating bioreactor used to seed the patient’s own bone marrow cells onto the scaffold prior to implant.

We believe the InBreath System is the first to enable the application of regenerative medicine techniques to the production and transplant of complex, three-dimensional human organs like the trachea. The InBreath bioreactor technology has been used in excess of ten successful human airway transplant surgeries and the most recent of these surgeries also used our InBreath scaffold.

We believe that the first of the surgeries conducted in 2008, was the world’s first transplant of a regenerated airway. This surgery used a human donor trachea as the scaffold. In addition, we believe the second surgery, conducted in 2011, was the world’s first transplant of a regenerated airway using a synthetic scaffold.

The patients who received these two airway transplants are alive at more than five years and more than two years, respectively, following their surgeries, and each of these surgeries was published in The Lancet, one of the world’s most respected peer-reviewed medical journals. The third, fourth, fifth and sixth surgeries also used our bioreactors and used a second generation synthetic scaffold that was made of fabric rather than the solid/porous construction used in the second surgery. As of September 9, 2013 three of these four patients are alive. The one who did not survive died of underlying causes unrelated to the bioreactor or scaffold. The seventh, eighth, ninth and tenth surgeries used our bioreactors and third generation scaffolds, which were the first scaffolds manufactured by HART to be used in any human surgeries. Three of these four patients are alive. The one who did not survive died of underlying causes unrelated to the bioreactor or scaffold.

The first six surgeries took place in Europe and Russia. The seventh surgery was the first in the US and took place in April 2013 at Children’s Hospital of Illinois in Peoria with FDA approval under an investigator-led Investigational New Drug application, or IND. The three subsequent surgeries were performed in the third calendar quarter of 2013 in Europe and Russia. All surgeries to date using our technologies have been led by Professor Paolo Macchiarini, a world-renowned thoracic surgeon of the Karolinska Institutet, one of Europe’s leading research hospitals.

Our products are currently in development and have not yet received regulatory approval for sale anywhere in the world.

We believe our technology could enable surgeons to cure nearly all primary trachea cancers. Our products address the critical challenges to trachea transplant: the shortage of suitable donor tracheas and the risk and expense of lifelong anti-rejection drug therapy. Because the scaffolds are synthetic, our technology will eliminate the need to wait for suitable donor tracheas. Our technology also obviates the need for anti-rejection drug therapy because the surgeon uses the patient’s own bone marrow cells to seed the scaffold. In addition, patients with trachea cancer treated using our products have not required either chemotherapy or radiation therapy after the transplant, thus potentially eliminating the significant side effects and expense of such therapies.

Because these substantial costs and risks can be reduced or even eliminated with our technology, we believe our products can both help save lives and reduce overall healthcare costs. None of the surgeries using our products have involved human embryonic stem cells and we do not currently expect surgeons to use such cells with our products.

Trachea cancer is a devastating and almost always fatal disease. Current treatments such as radiation therapy, chemotherapy and surgery have poor outcomes, resulting in median survival of only 10 months and a five-year survival rate of only 15%. Trachea cancer is one of the most fatal of all cancers with 5-year survival rates far below those of breast cancer, prostate cancer or colon cancer. Surgically removing a tracheal tumor is often the best way to treat tracheal cancer. However, surgery generally cannot be performed if the tumor is more than 2cm (about ¾ of an inch) in diameter because the remaining tissue cannot be stretched enough to bridge the gap left by removing the tumor. Because it is hard to detect trachea cancer in its early stages, many patients are only diagnosed when the tumor is already too large to be surgically removed. In these cases the patients receive palliative treatment only and typically survive less than a year. These patients are the vast majority of trachea cancer patients and we believe that the InBreath Airway Transplant System could enable surgeons to cure nearly all primary trachea cancers.

According to an article published in The Annals of Surgical Oncology in 2009, the incidence of trachea cancer is approximately one per one million of population, reflecting an addressable market of approximately 900 trachea cancer patients per year in the developed world. In addition, the incidence of bronchial cancers is estimated in published articles to range from 0.1% to 2% of lung cancers. We believe we have been conservative in estimating the number of bronchial cancers at 0.2% of lung cancers reflecting an addressable market of approximately 1,500 bronchial cancer patients per year in the developed world. Therefore, we estimate the total addressable market for trachea and bronchus cancer combined is approximately 2,400 patients per year in the developed world. In addition to trachea cancer, certain types of trachea damage can be treated by transplanting a trachea. In particular, patients may receive a tracheotomy, or surgically created hole in their throat, to allow them to breathe. When the tracheotomies are in place for more than a few days, patients are at increased risk of dying from pneumonia caused by aspiration of foreign material into the lungs. We estimate that there are approximately 3,900 trachea damage patients per year worldwide. In addition, there are approximately 250 patients in the developed world who are born without a trachea, a condition called tracheal agenesis, who may be treatable with a trachea transplant.

Combining patients with trachea and bronchial cancer, trachea trauma and tracheal agenesis, we estimate the total addressable patient population for airway transplants using our products is approximately 6,500 per year. While we cannot predict what the total potential market will be when and if we obtain regulatory approval to market our trachea products, based solely on there being at least 6,500 patients per year at the time of such approval, we estimate the total potential market for airway transplants that use our products could exceed $600 million per year if we were able to charge at least $100,000 per procedure for the InBreath System. While these estimates capture the number of new patients annually that are candidates for transplants using our products, they exclude what we believe to be a much larger pool of existing potential patients.

Patients with trachea cancer typically are treated with radiation therapy, chemotherapy or a combination of both. There are a number of common significant side effects of radiation therapy and chemotherapy, including pain, fatigue, hair loss and kidney and bladder problems. Such therapies are also expensive, with chemotherapy alone typically costing $24,000 per patient annually. Even with these therapies median survival is only 10 months.

While surgery is a preferred treatment option for trachea cancer, it is rarely performed because most trachea cancers are not diagnosed until it is too late for surgery to be a viable option. A trachea or bronchus transplant has also not been a viable option to date due to the difficulties of finding an anatomical match between the donor and the patient. Even if a donor trachea were available, the patient would require anti-rejection drugs for the remainder of his or her life to prevent rejection of the donor trachea. This therapy is expensive, typically costing $20,000 to $30,000 per patient annually. There is also a risk to the patient as anti-rejection drugs suppress the immune system causing even a mild infection to become potentially life threatening.

Previous attempts to implant a tracheal prosthetic have been unsuccessful in improving long-term survival as they have been unable to allow the body to create a functional lining of the trachea which is essential to the clearance of mucus. Without the clearance of mucus, patients have poor prognosis and typically die from pneumonia or respiratory failure shortly after transplant.

Patients that contract aspiration pneumonia caused by tracheotomies are treated with antibiotics that often fail, leading to the death of the patient. Trachea transplant is almost never used to treat these patients today due to the lack of suitable donor tracheas.

Nearly all patients that are born without a trachea die within a few minutes of birth due to lack of oxygen. On rare occasions a hole forms between the patient’s esophagus and lungs that can allow a surgeon to insert a breathing tube to connect the lungs with the mouth. However, we know of no patient born with tracheal agenesis who has survived more than six years.

Our Solution

We believe the use of the medical device products we are currently developing, together with the patient’s own cells, will provide a system for surgeons that is a major advance over the current therapeutic options for treating trachea cancer and trachea trauma and may be applicable to other medical conditions requiring organ transplants. We believe our products are the first to enable the application of regenerative medicine techniques to the production and transplant of complex, three-dimensional organs like the trachea. With continued development, we believe that our technologies will be applicable to the repair or transplant of other important human organs such as the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, heart valves, and heart. Our bioreactor technology was used in both the world’s first transplant of a regenerated airway in 2008 and in the world’s first transplant of a synthetic regenerated airway in 2011. The complete InBreath System combining our scaffolds with our bioreactors was used for the first time in April 2013.

We believe our products will overcome the major challenges in trachea and other organ transplantation. Unlike traditional organ transplants, our products will eliminate the need for a donor because the scaffold will be manufactured in a factory. In addition, for hollow organs, such as the trachea, our technology enables the production of a transplant that precisely matches the patient’s anatomy. Because the surgeon uses the patient’s own bone marrow cells to seed the scaffold, our technology also eliminates the risk and expense of lifelong anti-rejection drug therapy. In addition, patients with trachea cancer treated using our products have not required either chemotherapy or radiation therapy after the transplant, thus eliminating the significant side effects and expense of such therapies. Because these substantial costs can be reduced or even eliminated with our technology, we believe our products can both help save lives and reduce overall healthcare costs.

Further, human embryonic stem cells have not been used in any of the procedures involving our trachea transplant products. This eliminates both the medical risks and ethical controversy associated with regenerative medicine approaches using human embryonic stem cells and other controversial sources of cells.

We believe the use of our products together with the patient’s own bone marrow cells solves both the major challenges facing organ transplant: a synthetic scaffold avoids the need to wait for a donor and the use of the patient’s own cells avoids the risk and costs of anti-rejection drug therapy. The first application of our products is in treating trachea cancer but we believe the technology can be developed to apply to other important human organ transplants as well.